A Glossary of Terms

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  • Actual Milk Fat (g)
  • Actual Milk True Protein (g)
  • ADF-CP
    Acid Detergent Fiber- Crude Protein- a laboratory test used to measure the amount of heat damaged protein in hay and haylage, reported on a crude protein basis (nitrogen content multiplied by a factor of 6.25 to convert nitrogen content to a crude protein equivalent basis). Updates to the model favor the use of UNross for this value.
  • ADF (%DM)
    Acid Detergent Fiber as a percent of Dry Matter. Acid Detergent Fiber is a chemical analysis that determines the amount of residue (primarily cellulose, lignin and variable amounts of silica) remaining after boiling a feed sample in an acid detergent solution. The ADF value is more as a gauge than anything else in the model at this time. Revisions to the model focus on the use of uNDF at various time points as a determinant of digestibility.
  • ADG
    Average Daily Gain- the average daily liveweight gain of a growing animal. This is structure gain, not necessarily back fat gain. Animals do not have a negative ADG.
  • ADIN
    Acid Detergent Insoluble Nitrogen, portion of the Nitrogen not available to the animal. Model advancement favors the use of UNross for this value.
  • AF
    As Fed- an expression of feed nutrient content with moisture included. Nutrient content on an "as fed" basis is always lower than on a "dry matter" basis. AF%+DM%=100%
  • Aflatoxin B1 (mg)
  • Aflatoxin B2 (mg)
  • Aflatoxin G1 (mg)
  • Aflatoxin G2 (mg)
  • Altosid (mg)
  • Amino Acids
    a class of nitrogen-containing molecules that are the building blocks from which protein is made in the body. There are 10 essential amino acids for cows.
  • Amprolium (mg)
    Amprolium (milligrams)
  • AMTS Casein Yield (g)
  • AMTS Rumen pH < 5.8
  • AMTS VS Cheddar Yield (kg Chedder/100 kg Milk)
  • Animal Protein (g)
  • Antibiotic
    a class of drug usually produced by living organisms (molds, bacteria, etc.) that can inhibit or kill undesirable bacteria (e.g., penicillin).
  • Antioxidant
    a compound added to feeds to prevent the oxidative rancidity of fats.
  • ARG (g)
    Arginine (grams)
  • ARG (%MP)
    Arginine (percentage Metabolisable Protein)
  • ARG (%Rqd)
    Arginine (percentage of required)
  • Ash
    the inorganic mineral elements of animals and plants, determined in a laboratory by burning off the organic matter at a high temperature and weighing the residue (ash).
  • Ash (%DM)
    Ash as a percent of Dry Matter.
  • Available Protein
    Determined by calculation. Indigestible Protein is subtracted from Total Protein
  • Balanced Ration
    a 24-hour feed allowance that provides an animal with appropriate amounts and proportions of all nutrients required for a given level of performance.
  • Bambermycin (mg)
    Bambermycin (milligrams)
  • Beta Carotene
    a precursor of vitamin A provided by green pigment in forages that can be added in a synthetic form to feed mixtures. Higher levels of beta carotene are claimed to improved reproductive efficiency and decrease mammary infections in dairy cows.
  • Beta Carotene (mg)
    Beta Carotene in milligrams
  • Biotin (ppm)
    Biotin (parts per million)
  • Byproduct
    feed ingredients left over from industrial manufacturing. (e.g., distillers grains, almond hulls, feather meal).
  • C18:2 Intake (g)
    Linoleic acid: omega 6 unsaturated fatty acid
  • C18:3 Intake (g)
    Linoleic acid: omega 3 fatty acid
  • Ca Added (%DM)
    Calcium added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • Ca Added (g)
    Calcium added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • Ca (%DM)
    Calcium (percent of Dry Matter)
  • Ca (g)
    Calcium (grams)
  • Ca (%Rqd)
    Calcium (percent of required)
  • Carbohydrate
    energy-providing substrate, including starches, sugars, cellulose and hemicellulose. All carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, and are usually divided into two fractions: structural (fiber from plant cell wall) and non-structural NFC (sugars and starches from plant cell contents).
  • Carotene (mg)
    Carotene (milligrams)
  • Cellulose
    a fibrous carbohydrate that is the chief part of plant cell walls.
  • CF
    Crude Fiber-an outdated term used to express the fiber components of feeds. It has been replaced by ADF and NDF fractions in ruminant feeds.
  • CH4 (Mcal)
    methane (Mcal)
  • Chelated Mineral
    a compound formed between an organic molecule and a mineral that increases mineral bioavailability to the animal. These are claimed to make cows more efficient.
  • Chemical Analysis
    the use of standard chemical analytical procedures to determine the composition of a feed.
  • CHO-C (g)
    Carbohydrate fraction C (non digestable)
  • Choline
    an essential nutrient, not strictly a vitamin by definition, closely associated with fat metabolism and transport. Choline may be added to diets of early lactation dairy cows to help them metabolize energy and lessen the chance of metabolic disorders. To date the NRC has no Choline requirements for cattle.
  • Choline (ppm)
    Choline (parts per million)
  • Chromium (ppm)
    Chromium (parts per million)
  • Citrinin (CFU)
  • Cl Added (%DM)
    Chlorine added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • Cl Added (g)
    Chlorine added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • Cl (%DM)
    Chlorine (percent of Dry Matter)
  • Cl (g)
    Chlorine (grams)
  • Cl (%Rqd)
    Chlorine (percent of required)
  • CLA
    Conjugated Linoleic Acid- a variety of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid naturally formed in the rumen through the biohydrogenation of linoleic acid by rumen bacteria.
  • Clarifly (mg)
  • CNCPS Rumen pH
  • Co Added (mg)
    Cobalt added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • Co Added (ppm)
    Cobalt added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • Co (mg)
    Cobalt (milligrams)
  • Co (ppm)
    Cobalt (parts per million)
  • Co (%Rqd)
    Cobalt (percent of required)
  • Coccidiostat
    drug used to control coccidial infections. Coccidia are microscopic protozoa that live in the intestinal lining of livestock and poultry, causing severe diarrhea. Many calves are treated for Coccidiostat and can risk death if not treated expediently.
  • Colostrum
    the first milk secreted by mammals after giving birth. The colostrum is essential for newborn survival as they receive their immunity from their mother through passive transfer. Calves are born without an immune system.
  • Complete Feed
    a thoroughly blended mixture of different feed ingredients formulated to meet specific nutrient requirements. A complete feed may or may not include the forages in the ration.a thoroughly blended mixture of different feed ingredients formulated to meet specific nutrient requirements. A complete feed may or may not include the forages in the ration.
  • Concentrate
    a classification of feedstuffs high in energy.
  • Concentrate Intake (%BW)
    Concentrate Intake as a percent of body weight
  • Cost/hd
    Cost per head
  • CP
    Crude Protein-- an estimate of the total protein content of a feed determined by analyzing the nitrogen content of the feed and multiplying the result by 6.25.
  • CP (%)
    Crude Protein on percent of the diet basis.
  • Cu Added (mg)
    Copper added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • Cu Added (ppm)
    Copper added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • Cu (mg)
    Copper (milligrams)
  • Cu (ppm)
    Copper (parts per million)
  • Cu (%Rqd)
    Copper (percent of required)
  • Days To Change BCS
    Number of days predicted in order or animals to change Body Condition Score entered
  • DCAD 1
    dietary cation anion difference. DCAD 1 uses the old 4 element equation
  • DCAD1 (meq/kg)
    Old 4 element equation: (sodium+potassium) - (chloride + sulfur) = DCAD in mEq/kg
  • DCAD2 (meq/kg)
    dietary cation/anion difference (MilliEQuivalents/ kilogram)/DCAD2 is from 2001 NRC: (%K divided by 0.039) + (%Na divided by 0.023)] ? [(%Cl divided by 0.0355) + (%S divided by 0.016)]/100 grams of dietary dry matter (DM)
  • Degradable Protein
    Also known as Available Protein. Determined by calculation: Total Protein less (Rumen Degraded Protein (RDP) + (Rumen Undegraded Protein (RUP) - UNRoss))
  • DHA (g)
  • Digestibility
    a measure of the extent that a feed or nutrient is digested
  • Digestion
    the process of mechanical, chemical and enzymatic breakdown of consumed feeds into smaller components to be used by an animal.
  • DM
    Dry matter - feed residue left after all moisture has been removed by drying (i.e. 100% dry matter).
  • DM (%)
    Dry Matter Percent
  • DMI (NRC Predicted)
    Dry Matter Intake (NRC predicted) The predicted DMI based off NRC equation
  • DMI (NRC Predicted) (lb or kg/day)
    Dry Matter Intake (NRC predicted)
  • DON 3-Acetyl (mg)
  • DON 15-Acetyl (mg)
  • Drinking Water Intake (kg/day)
  • Dry-Matter Basis
    term used to compare feeds using a standard level.
  • Dry Matter Intake (lb or kg/day)
    Dry Matter Intake from Ration on a moisture free basis.
  • EDDI (mg)
  • EE (%DM)
    Ether Extract (Fat analysis)
  • Effective NDF
    see peNDF
  • EPA (g)
  • Ergot (mg)
  • Fe Added (mg)
    Iron added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • Fe Added (ppm)
    Iron added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • Fe (mg)
    Iron (milligrams)
  • Fe (ppm)
    Iron (parts per million)
  • Fe (%Rqd)
    Iron (percent of required)
  • Fenbendazole (mg)
    Fenbendazole (milligrams)
  • Ferm. CHO (%DM)
  • Fermentable CHO (%CHO)
    Fermentable Charbohydrates
  • Forage (%DM)
    Total Forage percentage of diet
  • Forage NDF (%BW)
    NDF contribution of Forage fraction
  • Forage NDF (%DM)
  • Forage NDF (%NDF)
    %NDF coming from Forages only
  • Fumonisin B1 (mg)
  • Fumonisin B2 (mg)
  • Fumonisin B3 (mg)
  • Gosypol (mg)
  • HIS (g)
    Histidine (grams)
  • HIS (%MP)
    Histidine (percentage Metabolisable Protein)
  • HIS (%Rqd)
    Histidine (percentage of required)
  • I Added (mg)
    Iron added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • I Added (ppm)
    Iron added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • I (mg)
    Iron (milligrams)
  • I (ppm)
    Iron (parts per million)
  • I (%Rqd)
    Iron (percent of required)
  • ILE (g)
    Isoleucine (grams)
  • ILE (%MP)
    Isoleucine (percentage Metabolisable Protein)
  • ILE (%Rqd)
    Isoleucine (percentage of required)
  • Inputted NEg (MJ)
  • Inputted NEm (MJ)
  • Inputted P Avail (g)
  • Inputted RDP (%CP)
  • Inputted RDP (%DM)
  • Inputted RDP (g)
  • Inputted RUP (%CP)
  • Inputted RUP (%DM)
  • Inputted RUP (g)
  • Inputted TDN (g)
  • IOFC
    Income Over Feed Cost
  • K Added (%DM)
    Potassium added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • K Added (g)
    Potassium added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • K (%DM)
    Potassium (percent of Dry Matter)
  • K (g)
    Potassium (grams)
  • K (%Rqd)
    Potassium (percent of required)
  • Lactic (%DM)
    Lactic Acid
  • Lasalocid (mg)
    Lasalocid milligrams in ration
  • Lasalocid (ppm)
    Lasalocid (parts per million)
  • LCFA (%DM)
    Long Chain Fatty Acids
  • LEU (g)
    Leucine (grams)
  • LEU (%MP)
    Leucine (percentage Metabolisable Protein)
  • LEU (%Rqd)
    Leucine (percentage of required)
  • Lignin (%DM)
  • LYS (g)
    Lysine (grams in diet)
  • LYS (%MP)
    Lysine (% of Metabolisable Protein)
  • LYS (%Rqd)
    Lysine (% of Required)
  • LYS:MET
    Lysine to Methionine Ratio
  • ME Allowable Gain (lb or kg/day)
    Metabolizable Energy Allowable Gain
  • ME (Mcal/lb or kg)
    Metabolizable Energy Mcal/ unit supplied
  • ME (MJ/kg)
    Metabolisable Energy (Mega Joules per Kg of feed)
  • ME (%Rqd)
    Metabolizable Energy
  • MET (g)
    Methionine (grams in diet)
  • MET (%MP)
    Methionine (% of Metabolisable Protein)
  • MET (%Rqd)
    Methionine (% of Required)
  • Mg Added (%DM)
    Magnesium added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • Mg Added (g)
    Magnesium added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • Mg (%DM)
    Magnesium (percent of Dry Matter)
  • Mg (g)
    Magnesium (grams)
  • Mg (%Rqd)
    Magnesium (percent of required)
  • MGA (mg)
  • Milk Fever Risk (%)
    probability of an animal getting milk fever when freshening
  • Milk Urea (mg/dl)
  • Mix
    two or more feed ingredients combined not always included at the same levels.
  • Mn Added (mg)
    Manganese added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • Mn Added (ppm)
    Manganese added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • Mn (mg)
    Manganese (milligrams)
  • Mn (ppm)
    Manganese (parts per million)
  • Mn (%Rqd)
    Manganese (percent of required)
  • Mold (CFU)
  • Molybdenum (mg)
  • Monensin (mg/day)
  • Monensin (ppm)
  • MP Allowable Gain (lb or kg/day)
    Metabolizable Protein Allowable Gain
  • MP (%Rqd)
    Metabolizable Protein as a percent of required
  • MP Supply (g)
    Metabolizable Protein Supply
  • MUN (mg/dl)
    Milk Urea Nitrogen
  • Na Added (%DM)
    Sodium added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • Na Added (g)
    Sodium added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • Na (%DM)
    Sodium (percent of Dry Matter)
  • Na (g)
    Sodium (grams)
  • Na (%Rqd)
    Sodium (percent of required)
  • Natural Vit E (IU)
  • NDF (%DM)
    Neutral Detergent Fiber
  • NEg (MJ/kg)
    Net Energy for Growth (Mega Joules per Kg of feed)
  • NEl-3X (MJ)
  • NEl-3X (MJ/kg)
  • NEl (Mcal/lb or kg)
    Net Energy for lactation (Mega calories per lb or Kg of feed) This is an old term, used in older ration balancing programs
  • NEl (MJ/kg)
    Net Energy for lacation (Mega Joules per Kg of feed)
  • NEm (MJ/kg)
    Net Energy for Maintenance (Mega Joules per Kg of feed)
  • Neomycin Base (mg)
  • NFC (%DM)
    Non-Fiber Carbohydrated
  • Niacin (%DM)
    Niacin (percentage of Dry Matter)
  • Ochratoxin (mg)
  • Org. Chromium (%Chromium)
    Organic Chromium (% Total Chromium)
  • Org. Cobalt (%Co)
    Organic Cobalt (% Total Cobalt)
  • Org. Copper (%Cu)
    Organic Copper (% Total Copper)
  • Org. Manganese (%Mn)
    Organic Manganese (% Total Manganese)
  • Org. Selenium (%Se)
    Organic Selenium (% Total Selenium)
  • Org. Zinc (%Zn)
    Organic Zinc (% Total Zinc)
  • Organic Fe (mg)
    Organic Fe (milligrams)
  • P Added (%DM)
    Phosphorus added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • P Added (g)
    Phosphorus added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • P (%DM)
    Phosphorus (percent of Dry Matter)
  • P (g)
    Phosphorus (grams)
  • P (%Rqd)
    Phosphorus (percent of required)
  • Patulin (mg)
  • peNDF
    physically effective NDF or scratch level. In a lactating dairy cow 19-25 is and acceptable level. In the CNCPS model there is a penalty given to the diets below 19 due to limited rumen function.
  • peNDF (%DM)
    Physically effective NDF
  • Peptides (%Req)
    Peptides
  • PHE (g)
    Phenylalanine (grams)
  • PHE (%MP)
    Phenylalanine (percentage Metabolisable Protein)
  • PHE (%Rqd)
    Phenylalanine (percentage of required)
  • Predicted Milk Fat (%)
  • Predicted Milk Fat (g)
  • Predicted Milk Production (kg/day)
  • Predicted Milk True Protein (%)
  • Predicted Milk True Protein (g)
  • Rabon (mg)
  • RDP (%CP)
    Rumen Degradable Protein percentage of Crude Protein
  • RDP (%DM)
    Rumen Degradable Protein
  • RDP (g)
    grams of Rumen Degradable Protein in ration
  • RUFAL Intake (g)
    Rumen Unsaturated Fatty Acid Load (g)
  • Rumatel (mg)
  • Rumen NH3 (%Req)
    Rumen Ammonia
  • RUP (%CP)
    Rumen Undegradable Protein percentage of Crude Protein
  • RUP (%DM)
    Rumen Undegradable Protein percentage of Dry Matter
  • RUP (g)
    grams of Rumen Undegradable Protein in ration
  • S Added (%DM)
    Sulphur added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • S Added (g)
    Sulphur added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • S (%DM)
    Sulphur (percent of Dry Matter)
  • S (g)
    Sulphur (grams)
  • S (%Rqd)
    Sulphur (percent of required)
  • Salt (%DM)
    Salt inclusion as a percent of Dry Matter
  • Se Added (mg)
    Selenium added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • Se Added (ppm)
    Selenium added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • Se (mg)
    Selenium (milligrams)
  • Se (ppm)
    Selenium (parts per million)
  • Se (%Rqd)
    Selenium (percent of required)
  • Slaframine (mg)
  • Soluble Fiber (%DM)
    Soluble Fiber
  • SP (%CP)
    Soluble Protein
  • Starch (%DM)
    Starch
  • Sugar (%DM)
    Sugar
  • T2 (mg)
  • TDN (%)
    Total Digestible Nutrients
  • TFA (%DM)
    Total Fatty Acids as percent of Dry Matter
  • Thiamine (mg)
    Thiamine (milligrams)
  • THR (g)
    Threonine (grams)
  • THR (%MP)
    Threonine (percentage Metabolisable Protein)
  • THR (%Rqd)
    Threonine (percentage of required)
  • Tilmicosin (mg)
  • Total Manure N (g)
  • Total Manure P (g)
  • Total Unsaturate (%DM)
    Total Unsaturated Fatty Acids
  • Total Water Intake (kg/day)
  • TRP (g)
    Tryptophan (grams)
  • TRP (%MP)
    Tryptophan (percentage Metabolisable Protein)
  • TRP (%Rqd)
    Tryptophan (percentage of required)
  • Tylosin (mg)
  • uNDF-30HR (%BW)
    The amount of NDF left (undigested) after 30 hours as a percent of body weight
  • uNDF (g)
    undigested NDF in grams
  • Urea Cost (MJ)
    Urea Cost
  • Urea (g)
  • Urea (kg)
    Kilograms of Urea in ration
  • VAL (g)
    Valine (grams)
  • VAL (%MP)
    Valine (percentage Metabolisable Protein)
  • Vegetable Fat (g)
  • Vit-A Added (KIU)
    Vitamin A added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • Vit-A Added (KIU/kg)
    Vitamin A added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • Vit-A (KIU)
    Vitamin A (Kilo international units)
  • Vit-A (KIU/kg)
    Vitamin A (Kilo international units/Kilogram)
  • Vit-A (%Rqd)
    Vitamin A (percent of required)
  • Vit-D Added (KIU)
    Vitamin D added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • Vit-D Added (KIU/kg)
    Vitamin D added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • Vit-D (KIU)
    Vitamin D (Kilo international units)
  • Vit-D (KIU/kg)
    Vitamin D (Kilo international units/ Kilogram)
  • Vit-D (%Rqd)
    Vitamin D (percent of required)
  • Vit-E Added (IU)
    Vitamin E added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • Vit-E Added (IU/kg)
    Vitamin E added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • Vit-E (IU)
    Vitamin E (international units)
  • Vit-E (IU/kg)
    Vitamin E (international units/ Kilogram)
  • Vit-E (%Rqd)
    Vitamin E (percent of required)
  • Vomitoxin (mg)
  • Zearalenone (mg)
  • Zilpaterol (mg)
  • Zn Added (mg)
    Zinc added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • Zn Added (ppm)
    Zinc added over an above that contributed by the basic ingredients (ie that coming from vitamin and mineral packs)
  • Zn (mg)
    Zinc (milligrams)
  • Zn (ppm)
    Zinc (parts per million)
  • Zn (%Rqd)
    Zinc (percent of required)

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